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【原创】银行如何进行网点群落化管理

文字:[大][中][小] 手机页面二维码 2021/6/21     浏览次数:    

随(sui)着网(wang)(wang)(wang)络(luo)金(jin)融和(he)(he)电子渠道的(de)(de)(de)发展,大(da)多数的(de)(de)(de)网(wang)(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)交易活(huo)动(dong)已转移(yi)到网(wang)(wang)(wang)上银(yin)(yin)行、手(shou)机银(yin)(yin)行或者(zhe)电子设备来进行,支付(fu)宝和(he)(he)微信(xin)支付(fu)等(deng)第(di)三方支付(fu)手(shou)段也使现金(jin)需(xu)求(qiu)大(da)大(da)减(jian)(jian)少(shao),银(yin)(yin)行网(wang)(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)交易功能需(xu)求(qiu)不断下降。此外(wai),随(sui)着网(wang)(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)租金(jin)的(de)(de)(de)上升(sheng)、人员成本的(de)(de)(de)增加,网(wang)(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)处理现金(jin)交易和(he)(he)结(jie)算(suan)交易的(de)(de)(de)区域应该相(xiang)应减(jian)(jian)小,从(cong)而(er)银(yin)(yin)行可(ke)(ke)以(yi)减(jian)(jian)少(shao)部(bu)分网(wang)(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)面积,银(yin)(yin)行可(ke)(ke)以(yi)将部(bu)分传统网(wang)(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)改造(zao)为(wei)小型网(wang)(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)。

 

为(wei)了(le)应对(dui)移(yi)动(dong)互联(lian)时代客(ke)户对(dui)银(yin)行(xing)(xing)网(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)使(shi)用(yong)习惯的(de)(de)变化(hua)(hua),以及银(yin)行(xing)(xing)网(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)小(xiao)型(xing)化(hua)(hua)、平台化(hua)(hua)、智能化(hua)(hua)的(de)(de)发展趋势,银(yin)行(xing)(xing)应该一方(fang)(fang)面不断调(diao)整银(yin)行(xing)(xing)网(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)布局、形态和结构,另一方(fang)(fang)面采用(yong)“行(xing)(xing)星(xing)-卫星(xing)”式的(de)(de)网(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)群落化(hua)(hua)模(mo)式对(dui)网(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)进行(xing)(xing)管理,由大型(xing)网(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)来做核心(xin)网(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)(行(xing)(xing)星(xing)),由小(xiao)型(xing)网(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)来作为(wei)辐射网(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)(卫星(xing))。

 

银行(xing)(xing)(xing)应该运(yun)用“行(xing)(xing)(xing)星-卫星”式的网(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)群落化(hua)模式,对现(xian)有网(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的结(jie)构和(he)功能进(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)调整(zheng),减少一(yi)些(xie)网(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的服(fu)务(wu)(wu)产(chan)品和(he)服(fu)务(wu)(wu),降低其网(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)功能,释放出一(yi)些(xie)网(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)人员,使其成为小型的卫星网(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),而由附近的大(da)网(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(行(xing)(xing)(xing)星网(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)),或(huo)者(zhe)将某些(xie)网(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)升级(ji),来对这些(xie)卫星网(wang)(wang)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的客户、提供的产(chan)品和(he)服(fu)务(wu)(wu)进(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)协同和(he)支持。

 

制定一(yi)个(ge)有(you)(you)效(xiao)的“行星-卫星”的网(wang)点(dian)(dian)群组(zu)管理(li)模式,需要(yao)(yao)(yao)对各区(qu)域的市场进(jin)行细(xi)致的分(fen)析,不同的网(wang)点(dian)(dian)类(lei)型需要(yao)(yao)(yao)反映不同的客(ke)户群构成。设计网(wang)点(dian)(dian)群落化模式的时候,银行需要(yao)(yao)(yao)考虑不同区(qu)域客(ke)户的消费习(xi)惯、人口分(fen)布(bu)和客(ke)户资源的结构情(qing)况,以及(ji)核(he)心(xin)网(wang)点(dian)(dian)的管理(li)半(ban)径(jing)等因素(su)。最重(zhong)要(yao)(yao)(yao)的是要(yao)(yao)(yao)考虑每个(ge)网(wang)点(dian)(dian)的功能和定位,有(you)(you)哪(na)(na)些产品和服务功能是每个(ge)网(wang)点(dian)(dian)都要(yao)(yao)(yao)提供的,而哪(na)(na)些只需要(yao)(yao)(yao)在核(he)心(xin)网(wang)点(dian)(dian)提供。

 

分析客(ke)户的产(chan)品和(he)服(fu)(fu)务(wu)(wu)需求(qiu)要从两个维(wei)度(du)(du)(du)来(lai)考虑,一(yi)个是客(ke)户使(shi)用(yong)的频(pin)(pin)度(du)(du)(du),一(yi)个是客(ke)户便利(li)性(时间距离)要求(qiu)。一(yi)些(xie)是客(ke)户使(shi)用(yong)频(pin)(pin)度(du)(du)(du)较高的产(chan)品和(he)服(fu)(fu)务(wu)(wu),要求(qiu)距离较近,如便利(li)店(dian)、干洗店(dian)、早(zao)餐(can)点(dian)(dian)心(xin)店(dian)等(deng)。对银行(xing)来(lai)说(shuo),就是存取款(kuan)、转账、理(li)财业(ye)(ye)务(wu)(wu)等(deng)。另一(yi)些(xie)是客(ke)户使(shi)用(yong)频(pin)(pin)度(du)(du)(du)低、金额较大、专业(ye)(ye)性强的产(chan)品和(he)服(fu)(fu)务(wu)(wu),如家具(ju)建材(cai)、家用(yong)电器、奢侈品等(deng)。对银行(xing)来(lai)说(shuo),就是个贷业(ye)(ye)务(wu)(wu)、按(an)揭贷款(kuan)业(ye)(ye)务(wu)(wu)等(deng)。在(zai)一(yi)个网点(dian)(dian)群组管理(li)模式中,所有的网点(dian)(dian)全都提供(gong)(gong)客(ke)户使(shi)用(yong)频(pin)(pin)度(du)(du)(du)高的业(ye)(ye)务(wu)(wu),而低频(pin)(pin)业(ye)(ye)务(wu)(wu)只在(zai)核心(xin)网点(dian)(dian)提供(gong)(gong)。

 

在这(zhei)种(zhong)情(qing)况下,各种(zhong)类型网点的(de)覆盖距离(li)(li)(li)如何(he)估算呢?不(bu)(bu)同(tong)的(de)产品和服(fu)务(wu),客户(hu)接受的(de)心理(li)(li)距离(li)(li)(li)不(bu)(bu)同(tong),如存取款等基础性、高频(pin)的(de)业务(wu),客户(hu)通常心理(li)(li)接受的(de)时间距离(li)(li)(li)较短,而个贷、按揭等低频(pin)业务(wu)的(de)心理(li)(li)接受时间就比较长(zhang)。由于(yu)区域(yu)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)、人口(kou)密(mi)度、商业分(fen)布、竞争等情(qing)况不(bu)(bu)同(tong),各区域(yu)网点的(de)辐(fu)射距离(li)(li)(li)也不(bu)(bu)同(tong)。这(zhei)样的(de)话,就可以根据不(bu)(bu)同(tong)的(de)城市(shi)、区域(yu)对(dui)核心网点和其他网点的(de)服(fu)务(wu)半(ban)径设置标准。

 

除了网(wang)(wang)(wang)点(dian)的(de)功(gong)能之外,网(wang)(wang)(wang)点(dian)群(qun)落(luo)化模式还对网(wang)(wang)(wang)点(dian)的(de)管(guan)理有影响。核心网(wang)(wang)(wang)点(dian)里可以安排一(yi)(yi)个(ge)级(ji)别(bie)比(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)高的(de)网(wang)(wang)(wang)点(dian)经(jing)理,同(tong)时来(lai)管(guan)理一(yi)(yi)些小型(xing)的(de)网(wang)(wang)(wang)点(dian)。小型(xing)的(de)网(wang)(wang)(wang)点(dian)可以只安排网(wang)(wang)(wang)点(dian)副经(jing)理的(de)级(ji)别(bie),人(ren)员的(de)数量也(ye)可以进(jin)行(xing)相应调整,这样(yang)可以大大节省人(ren)员的(de)成本。一(yi)(yi)般(ban)来(lai)说,一(yi)(yi)个(ge)经(jing)理可以管(guan)理包括本网(wang)(wang)(wang)点(dian)在内三到四个(ge)网(wang)(wang)(wang)点(dian)为宜(yi)。银行(xing)需要(yao)分析(xi)每个(ge)网(wang)(wang)(wang)点(dian)的(de)辐(fu)射(she)区域(yu)(yu)的(de)特征,来(lai)决定哪(na)一(yi)(yi)个(ge)网(wang)(wang)(wang)点(dian)作为核心网(wang)(wang)(wang)点(dian)比(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)合适。这些决策(ce)需要(yao)反(fan)映(ying)区域(yu)(yu)市场的(de)需求、客户群(qun)构(gou)成、区域(yu)(yu)特点(dian)、网(wang)(wang)(wang)点(dian)辐(fu)射(she)能力、竞(jing)争情(qing)况(kuang)等多种因素。

 

我们认为,未(wei)来(lai)银行的(de)网(wang)点(dian)体系中(zhong),除了少部分(fen)是综(zong)合性网(wang)点(dian),大部分(fen)的(de)将会是中(zhong)小型网(wang)点(dian)。综(zong)合性网(wang)点(dian)以(yi)业务(wu)(wu)(wu)的(de)全功能(neng)覆盖(gai)能(neng)力和人员的(de)专业化服务(wu)(wu)(wu)能(neng)力见(jian)长,强(qiang)调服务(wu)(wu)(wu)能(neng)力的(de)广度(du)和深度(du)。作为综(zong)合性网(wang)点(dian)中(zhong)的(de)旗舰店,则更要(yao)通(tong)过最(zui)新的(de)科(ke)技应(ying)用和形象设计(ji),来(lai)凸显(xian)银行的(de)科(ke)技能(neng)力、品牌(pai)形象和经营实力。

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